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The Muslim Image: A Cinematic Approach View Comments
by Sister Rose Pacatte, F.S.P.



Western cinema often settles on the stereotype that Arab Muslims are billionaires, terrorists or belly dancers. These films often merge being an Arab and a Muslim together, forgetting that there is a significant, though decreasing, population of Arab Christians, both Catholic and Orthodox, as well as Jews, in the Middle East and in countries where Islam is the predominant religion.

One recent film about Palestinian Christians was Amreeka, the story of a woman and her son who immigrate to Michigan after 9/11 and confront many of the prejudices created by stereotypes, as well as genuinely kind Americans.

At this, the 10th anniversary of 9/11, it is good for us to examine our cultural stereotypes about Islam so that we can reflect and make a positive contribution to Catholic-Muslim dialogue. Some of these films look at Islam from the outside, some from the inside.

Sex and the City 2

This 2010 sequel follows the adventures of Carrie (Sarah Jessica Parker), Samantha (Kim Cattrall), Charlotte (Kristin Davis) and Miranda (Cynthia Nixon) as they find adventure in Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates.

This is a disappointing follow-up to the film Sex and the City (2008) that had the redeeming qualities of friendship, fidelity and family. This film mocked the citizens, culture, religious, moral beliefs and sexual mores of their hosts. In addition, it had no real plot, so being outrageous and offensive was the default for lazy filmmaking.

The Circle

This film won the Golden Lion award at the Venice Film Festival in 2000 and a Special Mention certificate from the Catholic jury for its critical portrayal of how women are treated in Iran.

Director Jafar Panahi uses the metaphor of a circular staircase to show the beginning of life for a girl in Iran, and the desperate end, if she does not belong to a man who makes every decision for her. Nothing changes; life for women is an endless circle. The film is jarring and moving—and is banned in Iran.

The Kite Runner

This 2007 film tells the story of two Afghan boys, Amir (Zekeria Ebrahimi), the privileged son of a wealthy merchant, and Hassan (Ahmad Khan Mahmoodzada), son of a servant. The boys play carefree in the streets before the Soviet invasion and fly kites in tournaments.

After winning a contest for his friend, Hassan is attacked and raped by a local bully. Amir is ashamed for his friend and betrays Hassan by framing his father so that he loses his job. Amir moves to America, but guilt for his betrayal of his friend follows him. He returns to Afghanistan as a young man to look for Hassan and to
atone.

The 2003 best-selling novel on which the film is based was criticized for hampering the West’s understanding of Islamic culture. Afghanistan’s Ministry of Culture banned the film and DVD due to a rape scene, which by American standards was not so graphic. To me, the book and film are both excellent, and the closing scene of the film, where Amir prays in the mosque, is very inspirational.

Malcolm X

Called by some as one of the 10 best films of the ’90s, this biopic features Academy Award-winner Denzel Washington as the controversial Malcolm Little, who became Malcolm X after his conversion to the Nation of Islam.

This religious movement was founded in Detroit in 1930 and sought to empower blacks with belief in their dignity and to improve their lives economically and spiritually. There is an inner struggle for leadership, and Malcolm leaves the Nation of Islam and makes a pilgrimage to Mecca in April 1964. There he sees Muslims of different races, treating one another as equals.

Malcolm repudiates racism and adopts more moderate views, resolving to work for civil rights when he returns to the U.S. He is assassinated six months later. The film is more than three hours long, but with Spike Lee’s direction, based on the book by Alex Haley (Roots) as told to him by Malcolm X, it gives a sense of the accomplishments, struggles and persecution of African-Americans in the 20th century.

What few people realize is that significant numbers of African slaves brought to America were Muslim, so the return to Islam by some African-Americans is a return to their roots.

Aladdin

Disney’s animated hit was released in 1992 and won two Academy Awards for best original song and best musical score.

Based on the Middle Eastern folktale One Thousand and One Nights, the Disney version (followed by two direct-to-DVD movies), tells the story of Aladdin, a street urchin who falls in love with a princess, Jasmine. The princess is on the lam from her father, the sultan, who wants to marry her off. The genie from the magic lamp helps them to overcome everything and live happily ever after.

The American-Arab Anti-Defamation League, however, complained about the lyrics for the opening song: “Oh, I come from a land, from a faraway place, where the caravan camels roam. Where they cut off your ear if they don’t like your face. It’s barbaric, but hey, it’s home.”

Disney changed the lines about the ear and face to “Where it’s flat and immense and the heat is intense,” but they refused to change the line about barbarity. The stereotype of the narrator as a filthy Arab was also deemed offensive.

The film may have been deemed entertaining by unassuming audiences, but the film did little to promote understanding between cultures.

The Stoning of Soraya M.

Based on a true story by a Iranian journalist living in France, Freidoune Sahebjam, this 2008 film tells about a woman, Soraya, whose husband contrives to have her convicted by Shariah law (Islamic religious law) of adultery and stoned in 1990. It is a harrowing tale, and I thought it really demonized the men, until I read the book.

Actress Shohreh Aghdashloo, who plays Soraya’s aunt, told me at a press conference that she’d been waiting 20 years to make a film like this because she herself witnessed a stoning before she fled Iran as a young woman. Shohreh’s message to people of faith that day was: “We see human beings; we can serve the God in them. Take your kindness to the people of God. Treat them the same way you will treat your God.”

Miral

This 2010 film by the artist and Oscar-nominated director Julian Schnabel chronicles the life and good works of a real person, Hind Husseini (Hiam Abbass). Hind gathered Palestinian orphans, mostly Muslim, who survived the 1948 massacre of Deir Yassin in the Arab-Israeli conflict.

In the film, more children come and she uses her grandfather’s mansion as an orphanage and school. One student, Miral (Freida Pinto), is placed in the orphanage when her father can no longer care for her. She is a rebel, however, and becomes involved in violence to regain Palestine for her people. Her actions threaten the orphanage, and Miral must make a choice. A miral is a small flower that grows along the roads in Palestine. They are so beautiful but so small they go unnoticed. Such are the women of Palestine: beautiful, strong, resilient and unnoticed—for now.

CATHOLIC CLASSIFICATIONS
A-1 General patronage
A-2 Adults and adolescents
A-3 Adults
L Limited adult audience
O Morally offensive

The USCCB's Office for Film and Broadcasting gives these ratings. See www.usccb.org/movies/index.htm.

Find reviews by Sister Rose and others at www.CatholicMovieReviews.org.

Thank you for your comments. Editors will review all posts before they are visible on the website.

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Lorenzo Ruiz and Companions: Lawrence (Lorenzo) was born in Manila of a Chinese father and a Filipino mother, both Christians. Thus he learned Chinese and Tagalog from them and Spanish from the Dominicans whom he served as altar boy and sacristan. He became a professional calligrapher, transcribing documents in beautiful penmanship. He was a full member of the Confraternity of the Holy Rosary under Dominican auspices. He married and had two sons and a daughter. 
<p>His life took an abrupt turn when he was accused of murder. Nothing further is known except the statement of two Dominicans that "he was sought by the authorities on account of a homicide to which he was present or which was attributed to him." </p><p>At that time three Dominican priests, Antonio Gonzalez, Guillermo Courtet and Miguel de Aozaraza, were about to sail to Japan in spite of a violent persecution there. With them was a Japanese priest, Vicente Shiwozuka de la Cruz, and a layman named Lazaro, a leper. Lorenzo, having taken asylum with them, was allowed to accompany them. But only when they were at sea did he learn that they were going to Japan. </p><p>They landed at Okinawa. Lorenzo could have gone on to Formosa, but, he reported, "I decided to stay with the Fathers, because the Spaniards would hang me there." In Japan they were soon found out, arrested and taken to Nagasaki. The site of wholesale bloodshed when the atomic bomb was dropped had known tragedy before. The 50,000 Catholics who once lived there were dispersed or killed by persecution. </p><p>They were subjected to an unspeakable kind of torture: After huge quantities of water were forced down their throats, they were made to lie down. Long boards were placed on their stomachs and guards then stepped on the ends of the boards, forcing the water to spurt violently from mouth, nose and ears. </p><p>The superior, Antonio, died after some days. Both the Japanese priest and Lazaro broke under torture, which included the insertion of bamboo needles under their fingernails. But both were brought back to courage by their companions. </p><p>In Lorenzo's moment of crisis, he asked the interpreter, "I would like to know if, by apostatizing, they will spare my life." The interpreter was noncommittal, but Lorenzo, in the ensuing hours, felt his faith grow strong. He became bold, even audacious, with his interrogators. </p><p>The five were put to death by being hanged upside down in pits. Boards fitted with semicircular holes were fitted around their waists and stones put on top to increase the pressure. They were tightly bound, to slow circulation and prevent a speedy death. They were allowed to hang for three days. By that time Lorenzo and Lazaro were dead. The three Dominican priests, still alive, were beheaded. </p><p>In 1987, Blessed John Paul II canonized these six and 10 others, Asians and Europeans, men and women, who spread the faith in the Philippines, Formosa and Japan. Lorenzo Ruiz is the first canonized Filipino martyr.</p> American Catholic Blog We don’t have to scrub off our sin so God can love us. Instead, when we allow God’s healing love to touch us, we want to leave sin behind. Growth starts in love, not in guilt.

 
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