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opinion/commentary View Comments

Science and Religion
By The Editor
Source: Tennessee Register
Published: Monday, November 8, 2010
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Can science and religion ever be compatible? Does every scientific discovery pull us further from the realm of the transcendent? Can we ever welcome a scientific advancement without fearing that it is another blow against our belief in God and our trust that he plays a role in our life?

World renowned British physicist Stephen Hawking recently released a book, "The Grand Design," that he wrote with physicist Leonard Mlodinow. In their book they argue that God had no role in creating the universe. "Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing," wrote Mlodinow and Hawking, who has been a member of the Vatican's Pontifical Academy of Sciences since 1986. "Spontaneous creation is the reason why there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist."

"Spontaneous creation" seems like a rather hollow answer to the question of why are we here.

Of course, religious leaders from around the world were quick to respond to Hawking and Mlodinow. Anglican Archbishop Rowan Williams of Canterbury said "physics on its own will not settle the question of why there is something rather than nothing. ... Belief in God is not about plugging a gap in explaining how one thing relates to another within the universe. It is the belief that there is an intelligent, living agent on whose activity everything ultimately depends for its existence."

Jesuit Father Robert J. Spitzer, the former president of Gonzaga University in Spokane, Wash., and the author of the book "New Proofs for the Existence of God: Contributions of Contemporary Physics and Philosophy," answered Hawking on his blog and a YouTube video. "If the physical universe had a beginning (a point at which it came into existence) then prior to that point it was nothing," Father Spitzer said in his blog. "And if it was nothing then it could not have created itself (because only nothing can come from nothing).

"So what does that imply?" he asked. "The very reality that Dr. Hawking wants to avoid namely, a transcendent power which can cause the universe to come into existence."

The battle, no doubt, will continue to rage.

This week, Pope Benedict XVI spoke to members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences who had gathered at the Vatican to discuss "The Scientific Legacy of the 20th Century." The pope told the scientists that science is never to be feared, yet its discoveries will never be enough to answer all of the world's questions. In his comments, the pope was trying to carve out space for both science and religion, one complementing the other.

"Scientists do not create the world; they learn about it and attempt to imitate it, following the laws and intelligibility that nature manifests to us," he said.

The fact that there is a constant, a law or logic that exists outside of human control "leads us to admit the existence of an all-powerful reason, which is other than that of man, and which sustains the world," he added. "This is the meeting point between the natural sciences and religion. As a result, science becomes a place of dialogue, a meeting between man and nature and, potentially, even between man and his Creator.

While reiterating that the church esteems and encourages scientific exploration, the pope said science can benefit from recognizing a person's spiritual dimension and the human "quest for ultimate answers" about the world and the meaning of life. He urged scientists to take on a more "interdisciplinary approach tied with philosophical reflection."

Too often in today's culture, we are told that only scientists should determine whether a particular field of research is proper and moral, that all other considerations should melt away in the face of its potential for discovery.

To ask if a method of research is moral or if the end product of that research respects the dignity of human life is seen by some as an attack on science itself. But we all have a stake in the answers to those questions and we should all be included in the discussion, including churches and people of faith. That kind of broad discussion is important to ensure that science is always used to support human development and promote peace and justice. And isn't that exactly what God calls each of us to do?


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Cyril and Methodius: Because their father was an officer in a part of Greece inhabited by many Slavs, these two Greek brothers ultimately became missionaries, teachers and patrons of the Slavic peoples. 
<p>After a brilliant course of studies, Cyril (called Constantine until he became a monk shortly before his death) refused the governorship of a district such as his brother had accepted among the Slavic-speaking population. Cyril withdrew to a monastery where his brother Methodius had become a monk after some years in a governmental post. </p><p>A decisive change in their lives occurred when the Duke of Moravia (present-day Czech Republic) asked the Eastern Emperor Michael for political independence from German rule and ecclesiastical autonomy (having their own clergy and liturgy). Cyril and Methodius undertook the missionary task. </p><p>Cyril’s first work was to invent an alphabet, still used in some Eastern liturgies. His followers probably formed the Cyrillic alphabet (for example, modern Russian) from Greek capital letters. Together they translated the Gospels, the psalter, Paul’s letters and the liturgical books into Slavonic, and composed a Slavonic liturgy, highly irregular then. </p><p>That and their free use of the vernacular in preaching led to opposition from the German clergy. The bishop refused to consecrate Slavic bishops and priests, and Cyril was forced to appeal to Rome. On the visit to Rome, he and Methodius had the joy of seeing their new liturgy approved by Pope Adrian II. Cyril, long an invalid, died in Rome 50 days after taking the monastic habit. </p><p>Methodius continued mission work for 16 more years. He was papal legate for all the Slavic peoples, consecrated a bishop and then given an ancient see (now in the Czech Republic). When much of their former territory was removed from their jurisdiction, the Bavarian bishops retaliated with a violent storm of accusation against Methodius. As a result, Emperor Louis the German exiled Methodius for three years. Pope John VIII secured his release. </p><p>Because the Frankish clergy, still smarting, continued their accusations, Methodius had to go to Rome to defend himself against charges of heresy and uphold his use of the Slavonic liturgy. He was again vindicated. </p><p>Legend has it that in a feverish period of activity, Methodius translated the whole Bible into Slavonic in eight months. He died on Tuesday of Holy Week, surrounded by his disciples, in his cathedral church. </p><p>Opposition continued after his death, and the work of the brothers in Moravia was brought to an end and their disciples scattered. But the expulsions had the beneficial effect of spreading the spiritual, liturgical and cultural work of the brothers to Bulgaria, Bohemia and southern Poland. Patrons of Moravia, and specially venerated by Catholic Czechs, Slovaks, Croatians, Orthodox Serbians and Bulgarians, Cyril and Methodius are eminently fitted to guard the long-desired unity of East and West. In 1980, Pope John Paul II named them additional co-patrons of Europe (with Benedict).</p> American Catholic Blog This is the beauty of self-giving love: Men and women, driven by love, freely choose to give up their autonomy, to limit their freedom, by committing themselves to the good of the spouse. Love is so powerful that it impels them to want to surrender their will to their beloved in this profound way.

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