Each issue carries an imprimatur
from the Archdiocese of Cincinnati. Reprinting
Nine Things That Make
It's a good time to wonder about what makes us Catholic. The recent scandals—of crimes and cover-ups—have shaken our faith to the very roots. But maybe this is the backhanded blessing that God will draw out of this painful and purgative time, to return us to the deep roots of our faith.
For there we can find again, as if for the first time, the beautiful truths, moral convictions and spiritual treasury that constitute Catholicism. These will always be powerfully life-giving for us and for the world. Jesus explained to the Samaritan woman, and to disciples ever after, that he had come with "living waters" (read John 4:4-42). At this time, surely, we need to drink deeply from the great refreshing river that is Catholic Christian faith—at its best.
Apart from any scandals or crises, there is another reason to look more deeply at our Catholic roots. It is more than 40 years now since the opening of the Second Vatican Council. The extraordinary program of aggiornamento—literally, "bringing up to date"—that the Holy Spirit launched on the Church and world through Vatican II also brought its tremors and the pain of changing old ways, even if for better ones. The beloved Pope John XXIII, architect of the Council, said he wanted to open a window to let some fresh air into the Church. Forty years on, we need to pause and draw some long deep breaths of that good fresh air.
A collage of convictions
We need to have Catholic identity, but before claiming particular Catholic identity, we must first affirm who we are as Christians and what we hold in common with all of our Protestant brothers and sisters in Christ. The heart of Christian faith is not the Bible, nor the sacraments, nor the creeds, nor the Church—vital as all these are—but "a Person, the Person of Jesus of Nazareth, the only Son of the Father" (Catechism #426). By Baptism, the fundamental and common vocation of all Christians is to become disciples of Jesus Christ—people who follow "the way" that he modeled and made more possible by his living, dying and rising.
But even as we believe Jesus saying, "in my Father's house there are many dwelling places" (John 14:2), we should know well and embrace what is distinctive about our home within God's family. Of course, there is no one thing that constitutes Catholic identity; it's more a collage of convictions and commitments that coalesce as Catholicism. I can think of nine such pieces to the puzzle—or shouldn't we say mystery?—of Catholic faith. Very briefly now, here are nine things that make us Catholic.
1) Positive understanding of the person
Catholicism insists that the human person is essentially good, ever more graced than sinful. Oh indeed, we are capable of dreadful sin and destruction, but this is not what first defines us. God has implanted a "natural law" within our hearts that enables people to know and choose what is good, a capacity enhanced by Jesus' dying and rising for us. And though we always need God's help, grace empowers us and we are responsible to live for the kingdom, to do God's will "on earth as it is in heaven."
When the radical Reformers insisted that the human condition is totally corrupt (Calvin more than Luther), the Catholic Church, at the great Council of Trent (1545-63), rejoined that the divine image was never lost to us, even in the "Fall" of Adam and Eve. In fact, it has been refurbished by the incarnation of God in Jesus Christ. That all people reflect the image and likeness of God is also the basis of Catholic teachings on the dignity of every person, on the value of human life—from womb to tomb—and that all have the same basic human rights and responsibilities. As St. Irenaeus, an early Christian author (and martyr), summarized, "the glory of God is the human person fully alive."
2) Committed to community
Ever wonder why Catholics take Church so seriously—from going to church to being Church? It's because we're convinced that both our personhood and Christian faith are inherently communal. Catholicism has consistently taught that God creates us as communal beings, making us responsible for and to each other. Likewise, Christian faith calls us to bond together with other Christians like the parts of a body, as the body of Christ "for the life of the world" (John 6:51). By nature and faith, we are relational, "made for each other."
Catholics take community so seriously as to believe that it reaches even beyond the grave. Death is no barrier to our care for each other. Because the bond of Baptism is never broken, we can pray to the saints and for the souls. This communal emphasis of Catholicism is also the foundation of its social ethic that emphasizes every citizen's responsibility to the common good of the whole society. We must care for the common well-being as well as for our own. In both Church and society, Catholics should live as "all for one, and one for all."
3) Sacramental outlook
A youth ministry poster from my own distant youth said wisely, "God never makes junk." As with its outlook on the person, Catholic faith sees all of God's creation as essentially good. Likewise, whatever humans create as participants in God's creativity, though it can be misused for destruction, is never inherently evil. Here is why Catholicism has never condemned dancing, singing, celebrating, good food, even alcohol—and Catholics can have a little more fun. Yes, everything can be abused but all is first a gift (gratia) of God. Similarly, we can embrace our own lives in the world as meaningful and worthwhile, not because of our efforts but by the grace of God.
This graciousness of life in the world finds its high point in the sacramental principle that is so core to Catholic faith. This begins with the conviction that God reaches out to us and we respond through the ordinary and everyday of life, through the created order, through our relationships, through all our good efforts and the experiences that come our way. Climaxed by the seven great sacraments that we celebrate in Church, the sacramental principle encourages Catholics "to see God in all things" (St. Ignatius of Loyola).
Indeed, this sacramentality of life was heightened by Jesus Christ, God's greatest Sacrament to the world. And as Church we celebrate seven climactic "signs and instruments by which the Holy Spirit spreads the grace of Christ" (Catechism #774), with Eucharist being "the sacrament of sacraments" (St. Thomas Aquinas). But the seven sacraments should encourage in Catholics a sacramental outlook on all of life, to ever recognize "the more in the midst of the ordinary."
4) Catholics cherish Scripture and Tradition
A battle cry of the original Protestant Reformers was "scriptura sola," that "scripture alone" is the source of God's revelation. In response to the Reformers, the Council of Trent reaffirmed the centrality of sacred Scripture as "the norm of norms" for Christian faith. But it reiterated that Christian Tradition, representing the time-tested truths that emerge over the Church's history, is also a "fountain" of divine revelation. This was Catholicism's way of insisting that the Holy Spirit is ever present with the Church, helping to deepen our understanding and to address new questions and circumstances with the wisdom of Christian faith.
Now, let's be honest. Our Protestant brothers and sisters have been far more faithful in cherishing the Bible than have Catholics. But another gift of Vatican II was to call Catholics back to the Bible and to recenter it at the core of our faith. The Council also reiterated the Catholic conviction that Scripture and Tradition must be interpreted within the community of faith, the Church. In fact, Scripture, Tradition and Church "are so linked and joined together that one cannot stand without the others"; they "all work together...under the action of the Holy Spirit" for "the salvation of souls" (Divine Revelation #9 and 10). As Catholics, we interpret Scripture and Tradition within the Church, guided by its teaching magisterium—the pope and bishops in union with him.
5) Catholics embrace holistic faith
Jesus preached the great commandment of love as requiring one's whole person—all of mind, heart and strength. That old Baltimore Catechism answer to "Why did God make you?" reflected such a holistic sense of Christian faith: "to know, love, and serve" God in this life and be happy forever in the next. Christian faith demands our whole being—head, heart and hands. There is no aspect of our lives from which our faith can be excluded. It should permeate every nook and cranny, on Mondays as well as Sundays. Likewise, faith should be exercised on every level of existence—the personal, interpersonal and political. Christians should live as disciples of Jesus in every circumstance.
Again, the Protestant Reformers had emphasized that "faith alone" saves. They were trying to correct the undue Catholic emphasis of the time on doing certain pious practices as a way to "earn" salvation. And they had a point! Yet, Trent affirmed that indeed we are saved by faith in God and in Jesus Christ, but this faith must express itself in good works. As Jesus had counseled, we don't enter the kingdom by confessing Jesus as Lord but by doing the will of God (see Matthew 7:21). Or, to quote the Letter of James, "Faith without works is dead" (2:17).
6) Commitment to justice
Modern Scripture scholars agree that the central theme in the preaching of Jesus was the coming of God's reign. In keeping with his Jewish faith, Jesus understood God's reign as both personal and social, spiritual and political, for here and hereafter. It calls people to do God's will "on earth as in heaven." And God wills peace and justice and fullness of life for all humankind (John 10:10) and the integrity of creation. No wonder then that Jesus used the text of Isaiah 61:1-2 to launch his public ministry. He claimed to fulfill the promise of an Anointed One (Messiah) who would bring good news to the poor, liberty to captives, sight to the blind and let the oppressed go free (read Luke 4:16-21).
Catholicism has always emphasized that Christian faith demands care for the neighbor in need. But toward the end of the 19th century, the Church began to teach explicitly that our faith requires us to work for social justice. Christian faith demands that disciples oppose unjust social structures and work to ensure justice for all. And more than the blind "lady justice" weighing the scales in precise measure, giving everyone no more than their due (Aristotle), the biblical and Catholic sense of justice has a largesse to it. Like their God, God's people should side with the poor and oppressed, favoring those to whom justice is denied.
7) Universal spirituality
Spirituality is surely one of the buzzwords of our time; even people who disavow religion will readily claim to be "spiritual." Indeed, the Catholic attitude is that everyone is a spiritual being. For we are alive by God's own breath of life (Genesis 2:7), endowed with an "original" grace that draws us toward God. Philosopher Blaise Pascal summarized well our resultant desire: "There's a God-shaped hollow in the human heart that nothing else can fill."
Catholicism's greatest asset may well be its spirituality and the extraordinary variety of spiritual charisms that mark its life. It is in stark contrast to much of what passes for "new age" spirituality—a warm, fuzzy feeling about a very private relationship with the divine. Catholic spirituality can be summarized as "putting faith to work"—allowing Christian faith to permeate every aspect of daily life. It is sustained by our active membership in a Christian faith community and through disciplines of prayer, worship and conversation. It bears the fruits of compassion, justice and peace for ourselves and for the world.
8) Catholics are 'catholic'
We like to say that catholic means "universal," and indeed it does. That was Aristotle's favored meaning of the word. Its roots are the Greek katha holos, which literally mean, "to include everyone." This was likely why early Christian authors like St. Augustine began to use it to describe the Christian community. However, James Joyce may have said it best (in Finnegan's Wake), "catholic means 'here comes everybody.'"
To be catholic calls a community to welcome all people, regardless of their human circumstances. It demands that we reach out with love for everyone, neighbors next door and on the far side of the world—to care without borders. It requires that we respect people with religions that are different from ours, being open to dialogue and learning from them (Vatican II, On Non-Christian Religions, #2). And St. Augustine's favored use of catholic was "to be open to the truth, wherever it can be found." Parochialism and closed-mindedness are against the Catholic faith.
9) Devotion to Mary
Since the beginning of the Church, Mary has held pride of place in the communion of saints. And why wouldn't she, given her role as the mother of Jesus—the one who bore him, raised him to adulthood and was at the foot of the cross. In that moment of terrible suffering, we believe that through his words to St. John, "Behold, your mother," Jesus gave over Mary as mother to disciples ever after (read John 19:26-27).
A great debate arose in the early Church about whether or not Mary could have the title "Mother of God." Some said she did not deserve it, being the mother only of the human Jesus. But the faith of the common people insisted that she had borne in her womb this person who was God among us as one of ourselves, and so should be called "Mother of God."
They won the day. Yet, our turning to Mary is also based on a very human instinct. We remember how she interceded with Jesus at the wedding feast of Cana; though he didn't feel ready to launch his public ministry, he honored the request of his mother. Surely for a good son, this pattern continues in eternity. If Mother Mary intercedes for us, how can Jesus decline?
In the years prior to celebrating the Second Millennium, Pope John Paul II repeatedly called Catholics to ask forgiveness for the many ways and times that we have failed to live up to our faith. We must lament and repent that the core convictions outlined above have often been more honored in the breach than the observance. Yet, woven together, they ever challenge us with the great life-giving vision that is Catholic faith. There is no more worthy way to live than with those beautiful truths and values that make us Catholic.
Thomas H. Groome is Professor of Theology and Religious
Education at Boston College and director there of the Institute of Religious Education
and Pastoral Ministry. This Update is adapted from his book What
Makes Us Catholic: Eight Gifts for Life (HarperCollins, 2002), also
available from Recorded Books (read by author) at 800-638-1304.
NEXT: Eucharist—Spark of Mission (by Pope John Paul II)