Each issue carries
an imprimatur from
the Archdiocese of Cincinnati. Reprinting prohibited
Mary of History
By Robert P. Maloney
WHAT DO WE REALLY KNOW about the woman whom we call “Mother of God” and “Mother
of the Church,” the “first of all the saints,” the “model believer”?
What do contemporary Scripture studies, archaeological research and analysis of the literature
of her time reveal to us about Mary?
In this Update, we’ll take a look at the Mary of history, whose
life is so intertwined with the mystery of Jesus. Focusing on Mary’s Jewish roots,
writers like the late Raymond E. Brown, S.S., in The Birth of the Messiah, John
P. Meier in A Marginal Jew and Elizabeth A. Johnson, C.S.J., in Truly Our Sister have
carefully examined the religious, economic, cultural and political circumstances of her
daily life. The scene they reconstruct presents a picture that is quite different from
the pious images to which so many of us are accustomed. So much of our image of Mary has
been conditioned by the beautiful portraits of medieval artists, the serene rhapsodies
of musicians and poets.
THE HISTORICAL EVIDENCE
WHAT DOES HISTORY TELL US? We know that Mary was actually called Miriam,
after the sister of Moses. Most likely she was born in Nazareth, a tiny Galilean town of
about 1,600 people, during the reign of Herod the Great, a violent puppet-king propped
up by Roman military might. Nazareth was of little consequence for most Jews: “Can
anything good come from Nazareth?” (John 1:46). It is never mentioned in the Hebrew
Scriptures, nor in the Talmud, a rabbinic commentary.
Mary spoke Aramaic, with a Galilean accent (see Matt 26:73), but she also
had contact with a multilingual world. She heard Latin as it slipped from the tongues of
Roman soldiers, Greek as it was used in commerce and educated circles and Hebrew as the
Torah was proclaimed in the synagogue.
She belonged to the peasant class, which eked out its living through agriculture
and small commercial ventures like carpentry, the profession of both Joseph and Jesus.
This group of peasants made up 90 percent of the population and bore the burden of supporting
the state and the small privileged class.
Their life was grinding, with a triple-tax burden: to Rome, to King Herod
the Great and to the Temple (to which, traditionally, they owed 10 percent of the harvest).
Artisans, who made up about 5 percent of the population, had even less income than those
who worked the land full-time. Consequently, in order to have a steady supply of food,
they usually combined their craft with farming.
The picture of the Holy Family as a tiny group of three living in a tranquil,
monastic-like carpenter’s shop is highly improbable. Like most people at that time,
Joseph, Mary and Jesus probably lived in an extended family unit, where three or four houses
of one or two rooms each were built around an open courtyard, in which relatives shared
an oven, a cistern and a millstone for grinding grain, and where domestic animals also
lived. Like women in many parts of the world today, Mary most likely spent about 10 hours
a day on domestic chores like carrying water from a nearby well or stream, gathering wood
for the fire, cooking meals and washing utensils and clothes.
Who were the members of this extended household? Mark’s Gospel speaks
of Jesus, “the carpenter, the son of Mary, and the brother of James and Joses and
Judas and Simon? And are not his sisters here with us?” (Mark 6:3). Were these “brothers
children of Jesus’ aunt (see John 19:25) and therefore cousins? Were they Joseph’s
children by a previous marriage? We do not know their precise relationship to Jesus and
Mary, but it is probable that they all lived in close proximity, within the same compound.
In Palestine at that time, women ordinarily married at about age 13, in order
to maximize childbearing and to guarantee their virginity, so it is likely that Mary’s
espousal to Joseph (Matt 1:18) and the birth of Jesus occurred when she was very young.
Luke indicates that Mary gave birth to Jesus during a census required by the Romans around
6 B.C. (our calendars are off by a few years!) in a cave or stall where animals were stabled.
A feeding trough served as his crib. This is easy enough to visualize, since
today poor refugees use cardboard boxes and other homemade artifacts as makeshift beds
for newborn infants. It would be a mistake to think of Mary as fragile, even at 13. As
a peasant woman capable of walking the hill country of Judea while pregnant, of giving
birth in a stable, of making a four- or five-day journey on foot to Jerusalem once a year
or so, of sleeping in the open country like other pilgrims and of engaging in daily hard
labor at home, she probably had a robust physique in youth and even in her later years.
We also err when we picture her as Fra Lippo Lippi (a 15th-century Italian
master) did, as a gorgeously dressed, blue-eyed, blond-haired Madonna, a European beauty
who often adorns Christmas cards. Whether she was beautiful or not, she would have had
features like those of Jewish and Palestinian women today, almost certainly with dark hair
and dark eyes.
It is doubtful that she knew how to read or write, since literacy was extremely
rare among women of the time. Most people acquired information and culture by listening
and speaking. People didn’t read books and magazines; they listened to public reading
of the Scriptures, shared in storytelling, recited poems and sang together.
THE EARLIEST CHRISTIAN
MARY’S WAS JEWISH CULTURE. One might legitimately ask: Did she keep
a kosher kitchen, that is, one which was ritually pure? Was there a mezuzah on the doorpost
of her family’s modest home in Nazareth? That small reminder of the Passover, containing
the Ten Commandments, was used then and remains on the main-entrance doorframes of many
Jewish households today.
Her husband, Joseph, seems to have died before Jesus’ public ministry
began. We know that Mary herself, however, lived through the time of that ministry (Mark
3:31, John 2:1-12). Her separation from Jesus as he went out to preach was undoubtedly
painful for her. In a passage that has always embarrassed those academics who study Mary
(Mariologists), Mark tells us that Jesus’ family thought him mad (Mark 3:21). But
what mother, upon seeing her son challenge Roman authority rather dauntlessly (this often
meant death), might not have said to him, “Are you crazy?”
John tells us that Mary was present at Jesus’ crucifixion (John 19:25-27),
though the other evangelists are silent about this. At that time she was probably close
to 50 years old, well beyond the age at which most women in that era died. She lived on
at least into the early days of the Church.
Luke states that she was in the Upper Room in Jerusalem with the 11 remaining
apostles who “devoted themselves with one accord to prayer, together with some women,
and his brothers” (Acts 1:14). The lovely paintings and icons of Pentecost that picture
the Spirit descending on Mary and the 11 apostles hardly do justice to Luke’s text
in Acts 1:15, which indicates that she was there with a community of 120 persons.
After Pentecost, Mary disappears from history. The rest of her life is shrouded
in legend. As Elizabeth Johnson points out, an active imagination easily wonders: What
memories, hopes and strategies did she share with the men and women of the new, Spirit-filled
Jerusalem community? Did she live on peacefully in Jerusalem as an old woman, revered as
the mother of the Messiah? Was she quiet or outspoken? Did others come to her for advice?
Did she express her views about the inclusion of the gentiles? We do not know.
She may well have died as a member of the Jerusalem community, though a later
tradition portrays her as moving to Ephesus in the company of the apostle John. There is
a shrine there, in modern-day Turkey, honoring that tradition.
PILGRIMAGE OF FAITH
WHY FOCUS on the historical Mary? I would suggest there are three good reasons:
1. Her history brings her nearer to us. While there is an alluring
quality to the gorgeous Madonnas depicted by medieval artists, Mary didn’t look like
that. This first-century Jewish woman, living in a peasant village, was much more like
billions of people today than like the women in those beautiful paintings.
Though her culture was quite different from that of our 21st-century post-industrial
society, it was not unlike that of women in thousands of villages as they exist today in
Asia, Africa and Latin America. Her daily life and labor were hard. With Joseph, she raised
Jesus in oppressive circumstances, struggling to pay the taxes by which the rich became
richer at the expense of the poor. As with the vast majority of people in world history—the
most of Mary’s difficult life went unrecorded.
2. She listens to God’s Word. In fact, her holiness lies in
persistent, faithful listening to God’s word. In canonizing saints, the Church has
customarily emphasized martyrdom, asceticism, renunciation of family and worldly possessions,
or lifelong dedication to the poor. Today, though, the Church recognizes more and more
that holiness consists mainly in persevering fidelity in the midst of everyday life, whatever
it holds. This is what the “historical Mary” exemplifies.
As events unfold around her, often to her surprise, she has to figure out
continually what God is asking of her. She looks for the word of God in people and events,
listens to that word, ponders it and then acts on it. She doubtless repeats again and again
what she said to Gabriel, “May it be done to me according to your word”
(Luke 1:38). Day by day she lives a
“pilgrimage of faith,” to use the words of Vatican II (see Lumen Gentium, #58).
She finds energy in her trust in the God of Israel and in her solidarity with the growing
community of Christians who experienced the promise of life in the death and resurrection
of her son.
3. She sings freedom’s song. Today we recognize Mary’s
Magnificat as a rousing freedom song of the poor. Mary, the lead singer, epitomizes the
lowly of Israel, those marginalized by society, for whom there is “no room in the
inn” (Luke 2:7). God is her only hope, and she sings the divine praises with exuberant
While it may be difficult to imagine this revolutionary hymn coming from
the mouth of a Madonna painted by Caravaggio, it is easy to envision it issuing from the
lips of the historical Mary. Galilee was the spawning ground for first-century revolts
against a repressive occupying power and its taxes. The Christians of Jerusalem, who with
Mary were the nucleus of the post-Resurrection church, suffered from real hunger and poverty
(see Gal 2:10; 1 Cor 16:1-4; Rom 15:25-26).
With the members of this community, Mary believed that God can turn the world
upside down; that the last are first and the first last; the humble are exalted, the exalted
humbled; those who save their life lose it, those who lose their life save it; those who
mourn will rejoice, those who laugh will cry; the mighty are cast down from their thrones,
the lowly lifted up. She and they were convinced that in God’s Kingdom the poor are
first, and the prostitutes, publicans and outcasts of society eat at the table of the Lord,
as Jesus, her son, pointed out during his ministry (see Matt 21:32).
The historical Mary experienced poverty, oppression, violence and the execution
of her son. Her faith is deeply rooted in that context. Before the omnipotent God, she
recognizes her own “lowly estate.” She is not among the world’s powerful.
She is simply God’s “maidservant.” But she believes that nothing is impossible
for God. In the Magnificat (see Canticle at left) she sings confidently that God rescues
life from death, joy from sorrow, light from darkness.
Dietrich Bonhoeffer, the theologian-martyr executed by the Nazis in 1945,
spoke these words during a sermon in 1933:
The song of Mary is the oldest Advent hymn. It is at once the most passionate,
the wildest, one might even say the most revolutionary Advent hymn ever sung. This
is not the gentle, tender, dreamy Mary whom we sometimes see in paintings; this is
that passionate, surrendered, proud, enthusiastic Mary who speaks out here. This song
has none of the sweet, nostalgic, or even playful tones of some of our Christmas carols.
It is instead a hard, strong, inexorable song about collapsing thrones and humbled
lords of this world, about the power of God and the powerless of humankind.
The historical Mary stands in solidarity with the poor of Israel. In fact,
she is their spokesperson, especially in Luke’s Gospel. She cries out with gratitude
for God’s gifts, especially for the son in her womb: “My soul proclaims the
greatness of the Lord. My spirit rejoices in God my Savior.”
She believes that, in Jesus, the power of God can turn the world upside down, ushering
in a new era, a kingdom of justice, love and peace: “He casts down the mighty from
their thrones and lifts up the lowly.” This message is more and more relevant today
as the Church holds Mary up as Mother of the Poor, and as the poor throughout the world
join with Mary in singing her vibrant song. It is both praise of God’s power and
prophecy of a world to come.
NEXT: Faithful Citizenship (by the U.S. Bishops)