According to the Dictionary of Mary, published by Catholic Book Publishing Company, the Litany of the Blessed Virgin has a long history.
The form of the litany was modeled on the earlier Litany of the Saints. The Dictionary speculates that the Litany of the Blessed Virgin originated in Paris. It probably dates from between 1150 and 1200.
The Litany of the Blessed Virgin is sometimes called the Litany of Loreto, because we know it was used at the Shrine of Our Lady of Loreto, as early as 1558. Pope Sixtus V gave approval to the prayer in 1587.
Over the years the Church added the invocations, “Queen conceived without sin,” “Queen assumed into heaven,” “Queen of the Most Holy Rosary” and “Queen of peace.” In 1980 the Congregation for Sacraments and Divine Worship directed that the invocation “Mother of the Church” be inserted at the proper place.